THIS IS DUE TODAY…I NEED THIS PAPER PROOF READ AND RE-WORKED WHERE NEEDED. I NEED IT DONE IN APA FORMAT.

THIS IS DUE TODAY…I NEED THIS PAPER PROOF READ AND RE-WORKED WHERE NEEDED. I NEED IT DONE IN APA FORMAT. I HAVE ATTACHED THE OUTLINE. YOU DO NOT NEED TO INCLUDE THE OUTLINE. I JUST NEED THE PAPER RE-WORKED SO THAT I CAN PULL OUT A DECENT GRADE. PLEASE MAKE SURE THE REFERENCES WERE DONE PROPERLY AND PUT IN APA FORMAT. THIS IS DUE TODAY.

The opium drug

1.0 Introduction

2.0 History of opiates

3.0 Preparation of opiates and psychopharmacology of opiates

3.1 Preparation of opiates

3.2 Psychopharmacology of opiates

4.0 Current trends of opiates in the society and effects of detoxification

4.1 Current trends in the society

4.2 Effects of detoxification

5.0 Data Collection

5.1 Methods of data collection

6.0 Societal concerns in relation to opiates

7.0 Relevance of opiates to the counselling profession and Future implications of opiates to the society.

7.1 Relevance of opiates to the counseling professionals

7.2 Future implications of opiates to the society

8.0  Analysis and Recommendations

8.1 Analysis

8.2 Recommendations

9.0 Conclusion

10.0 References

 

1.0 Introduction

This research was carried out with the intent of finding out the origin of opiates, how they can be prepared or obtained in case one needs them, their current trends in the society, If in case these drugs pose any significance to public and the addicts as well, the significance of opiates to the counselling personnel and the future expectations in regard to opium usage (Stephens, Liles, Dancel, Gilchrist, Kirsch, & DeWalt, 2014).

2.0 History of opiates

Opiates are samples of exudate that are extracted from the opium poppy and are used to relieve pain and suffering in the human body. The plant was first cultivated in countries like Egypt and Mesopotamia where the archaeological fossils show that the first men might have used the drug 30,000 years ago. A flower by the name of “hul girl” which is said to be a plant of joy is the only specimen available known to produce opium regarding the Sumerian text.

3.0 Preparation of opiates Psychopharmacology of opiates
3.1 Preparation of opiates

Unripe opium is believed to have alkaloids that are over 40 in number. Morphine constitutes a large number of alkaloids available in opium whose percentage ranges from a region of 6 to 25 percent based on the source of opium used. Another opiate that has much influence as far as the topic of this research is concerned is codeine. This drug is an open source alkaloid that can be naturally derived from poppy as well as opium straws but under-regulated measures. Morphine can methylate during phenolic hydration to get the codeine. But at times unwanted latter methylation during free hydration may also take place where it is believed that one of the oldest trials that aimed to change morphine into codeine took place in the early 1980s. The examples of the alkylating agents used and are even up to date being used are methyl chloride and phenyltrimethylammonium chloride

3.2 Psychopharmacology of opiates

As mentioned above, opiates are derived from the opium tree, and the tree in question contains two samples. That is; morphine and codeine. Morphine is the common among the people because of its healing, pain relieving power and the ability to make one feel great, and contended with their state. Therapeutically vital actions upon the sensitive and effective aspects of pain come with the profound impacts on neural components available in the respiration, congratulating and educating on the behaviors and mental processes. Overall alignment of the opioid peptide was recorded a few days after the discovery was made. A sample of genes encompassing four opioids merging with peptides was discovered in the genome of mammals.

4.0 Current trends of opiates in the society and Effects of detoxification

4.1 Current trends of opiates within our societies

The misuse and addiction to opioids like morphine as well as heroine and painkillers are one of the global problems engulfing societies health as well as economic well-being. It is said that approximately 26 to 36.5 million people are under the influence of opioids worldwide. Some of these addicts have been diagnosed to have brain disorders resulting in many overdoses that have led to their deaths due to thinking that by taking more than prescribed, they will be able to relieve their pains instantly, however, this is not the case as its consequences have caused massive problems to their health if not death.

When analyzing the current trends regarding drug abuse, the death rates from opioids registers the highest percentage of the prescription as far as opium is concerned. The death rates started to rise during the early years of the 21st century and have since steadily risen to an alarming number that by the year 2002 death certifications had registered an opioid analgesic harms where most of them were as a result of cocaine, heroin consumption or as a result of both.

4.2 Effects of detoxification

Detoxification is a process whereby the human immune system is set at liberty to free or fight against the introduction of toxic substances into it. Lofexidine, also known as Subutex, Buprenorphine, Britoflex, and Naltrexone are certified as safe to use in many countries across the globe because the drug is known to result in minimal sedation and limited cases of low blood pressure as contrasted with clonidine. Since these partial agonist are known to perform similar to heroin in the human immune system, the patient does not and will not get on with the effects of withdrawal signs as a heroin is being removed from the body. The syrup is given as intramuscular pinning or intravenously and it begins to function from the first 15 minutes of its application and lasts up to 6 hours before its effects can be seen (Duka & Stephens, 2014).

Agonistic medication aims to treat opioid addiction by dealing with similar receptors as those contained in the human immune system. These agonist react faster and do not result in the production of poisonous characters that identify addiction because of the speed at which they go into the human brain. Using these agonists poise no effects to the body and consequently leaving it is very slow thus no effects are poised by such medication

5.0 Data Collection

5.1 Methods of data collection

This research was carried out using two methods to collect data that by use of primary and secondary sources as well.

Primary sources were:

• Use of inquiry method; with the help of rational method I together with my fellow course mates was obliged to logically reason what might be the causes, consequences and the proper treatment of the danger caused by opium in our society.

• with the help of empirical method, I was able to use my experience and observing as well how the drug addicts behave in our localities.

Secondary sources used to collect data were;

These are the data I was able to obtain from sources like textbooks, encyclopedia and magazines as well. They include;

• Poluha, W. (2014). P-50the Prevalence of Seizures during Withdrawal from Alcohol, Benzodiazepines and Opiates in Medically Monitored Detoxification Center. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 49(suppl_1), i63. More sources are listed at the reference page.

6.0 Societal concerns about opiates

Starting from the 1960s, the misuse of drugs has been increasing steadily. This has led the society and other well-wishers who want a drug free zone to carry out vigorous mass campaigns to educate the public on the effects of drug abuse. These campaigns mostly target the youth who are within the vulnerable bracket of drug addicts, in many cases, these groups are found in market centers, sporting grounds and other gaming areas (Merkx, Schippers, Koeter, Wildt, Vedel, Goudriaan, & Brink, 2014).

A cultural cycle that cannot withstand the prolonged social order has powerful emotions regarding the non-sanctioned consumption of drugs that do the opposite of the available value system. Many bills and capsules are made and consumed on a daily basis. Thus it remains a concern for the society to remain focused and say no to such drugs if any case is introduced into their homes.

7.0 Relevance of opiates to the counseling profession and future implications of opiates to the society.

7.1 Relevance of opiates to the counselling profession. 

The counseling personnel greatly rely on the data collected from those under the influence of these drugs to know the best way to counsel different people. For instance, the counseling professionals require knowing what are the consequences of taking the drug to the; addict in question, society, and the economy as well.( Delaffon, Naik, Mann, Vahabzadeh, Millward, Majeed & Pant, 2013). It will help such group of personnel to have a proper functional work plan on how to counter these drugs, have a budget of rehabilitating the addicts and other budgets like hiring more counseling professionals and setting up of more counseling units to reach out a wider number of drug addicts.

7.2 Future implications of opiates to the society.

It remains a task for the governments, societies, parents and other stakeholders to join hands together in the fight against drug usage in our communities. However if this is not, met, then the future won’t be any better but will be worse than today

8.0 Analysis and Recommendations

8.1 Analysis

The use of opiates did not start today. However, it started long ago and had since brought about some negative impacts to the society than it can do good, loss of lives, addiction, erosion of moral values and culture are some of the effects that have emerged as a result of drug usage. The government and other stakeholders should try their level best to ensure that our society is a drug-free zone.

8.2 Recommendations

• Counselling centers should be built to ensure that those addicted get proper guidance on how to free themselves from the consumption of drugs.

• Carrying out vigorous mass campaigns to educate the public on the effects of taking drugs to the addict, family, society and the country at large.

• Banning of drug manufacturing companies to do away with drugs in our societies.

9.0 Conclusion

Opiates have been in place for a long time, and that despite the drug addicts being fully aware of the  effects like loss of lives, property, hallucinations and mental disorders, up to date, they are still using them. The society and the counseling personnel should join hands in the fight against drugs. Even though the problems that come about as a result of drug addiction can be cured, I don’t  condone or pave way for drug abuse. This is because the future of each individual depends on the choices that they make today.

10.0 References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American 

Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the assistant principalship: A practical guide for new school administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the assistant principalship: A practical guide for new school administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Delaffon, V. & Vahabzadeh. (2013). Deterining and curing of Wernickes encephalopathy upon

the drug addicts. New York: Columbia University Press.

Duka, T., & Stephens, D. N. (2014). Repetitive detoxification for drug addicts with mental disabilities, characteristics and control measures to counter relapse for the present addiction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Feldman, D., Kowbel, D. J., Glass, N. L., Yarden, O., & Hadar, Y. (2015).  Detoxifying VI-

hydroxymethylfurfural with the help of Pleurotus ostreatus lignolytic enzymes aryl and other biotechnological bio-fossils. New York: Continuum.

Poluha, W. (2014). Seizures suitability to those who have been under the influence of drugs to their health after doing away with drugs at Health Supervised Detoxification units. London: Bartlett Publishers.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229.

Merkx, M. J., Koeter, M. & Vedel, E. (2014). Treatment results as a consequence of drug usage

disorders for the addicts regardless of their medical aid. New York: Oxford University.

Stephens, J. R., Liles, E. A., Dancel, R., Gilchrist, M., Kirsch, J., & DeWalt, D. A. (2014).

Otherthan addicts drug addicts, what or who are the other targets? How to generate and put in place hospital procedures for the assessment of the drug users. Wes References

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/

 

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